Baseline characteristics are presented as means with standard deviation for continuous variables and numbers and percentages for categorical variables. Annual incidence rates (IR) were calculated as the number of events per 1000 person-years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate HR and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to analyze association between baseline blood pressure subgroups and cardiovascular and mortality outcomes. Additional analysis according to SBP/DBP combination groups was performed. Two-tailed P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA).
This research included 374,250 blood pressure level treated Koreans 75 years otherwise older (Fig. 1), whose baseline services by benefit size get for the Desk step 1. During the mean go after-right up of five.six ages, twenty eight,621 customers knowledgeable ischemic coronary arrest, fourteen,683 had MI, and 74,115 patients passed away. Essentially, people with cardio feel frequency had highest pricing of CVD risk factorspared so you’re able to participants no situations, individuals with ischemic stroke and you will MI incidence got somewhat high standard blood pressure levels, was indeed earlier, likely to end up being male, getting latest smokers, getting yourself dead, has actually all forms of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney problem. Alcohol consumption showed some other style getting ischemic coronary attack and you will MI. This new zero feel teams got high rates of abdominal being obese and you may obesity. Interestingly, in relation to death, people who died was basically less inclined to enjoys dyslipidemia.
Flowchart off cohort solutions. A total of 374 250 sufferers have been qualified to receive the newest cohort, and you can had been implemented to have MI, ischemic heart attack, and all-produce demise up until
Cox regression analysis of adjusted HRs by SBP and DBP are shown in Fig. 2. The reference groups were SBP 120 to 129 mmHg and DBP < 70 mmHg. All three outcomes measures showed highest HRs and IRs with SBP ? 170 mmHg or DBP ? 100 mmHg, except for all-cause death with highest risk when SBP < 110 mmHg. HR by SBP followed a J-curve pattern for ischemic stroke, and a U-shaped pattern for all-cause death. The nadir SBP ranges were 120 to 129 mmHg (HR 1, reference group) and 140 to 149 mmHg (HR 0.961; 95 % CI 0.937 to 0.985) for ischemic stroke and all-cause death, respectively. For MI, SBP < 160 mmHg was a relatively homogenous group and HR significantly increased only once SBP ? 160 mmHg. Meanwhile, increasing DBP generally showed higher HRs for ischemic stroke. For MI and all-cause death, DBP up to 80 mmHg and 90 mmHg did not show any significant differences from the reference group, and HR significantly increased when DBP was ? 80 mmHg or ? 90 mmHg, respectively.
Threat percentages (HR) having ischemic coronary attack, myocardial infarction (MI), and you will death with respect to the systolic blood pressure level (SBP) and you will diastolic blood her dating free trial pressure levels (DBP) class. The details is modified getting ages, intercourse, bmi (BMI), smoking/ drinking/exercise/money updates, therefore the exposure from all forms of diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and persistent kidney state (CKD). Brand new 95% rely on (CI) periods are given while the vertical contours for the Many hours
In the SBP/DBP combination analysis, HRs stratified by SBP/DBP groups were calculated (Fig. 3). The reference group was SBP 130 to 149 mmHg/DBP < 80 mmHg. For each SBP group, higher DBP groups yielded higher HRs for all three outcomes, except when SBP ? 150 mmHg, DBP < 80 mmHg had higher HRs than when DBP was 80 to 89 mmHg, also for all three outcomes. Regardless of SBP control, patients with the highest DBPs ? 90 mmHg had higher HRs compared to the reference group. While there was no additional consistent trend in ischemic stroke and MI, in terms of all-cause death, within the same DBP group, the highest HRs lay in the SBP groups < 130 mmHg.