Undesirable browning colour in the frying process is still a matter of concern due to health aspects, especially its carcinogenicity. Indeed, acrylamide, a toxin formed during potato frying process, is known as a potential carcinogen (Friedman, 2003 ) and mutagen (Segerback et al., 1995 ). Consequently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) had classified acrylamide in Class 2A as a probable human carcinogen (IARC, 1994 ). The formation of acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich foods generally occurs, when heated at high temperatures (over 120°C) under limited humid conditions. It is mainly due to a Maillard reaction which involves reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and an amino acid asparagine (most abundant amino acid in potato). It is important to note that sucrose can be hydrolyzed through acid, enzymatic or thermal treatment acting as a precursor for the formation of reducing sugars (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2009 ; Stadler et al., 2002 ). Reducing sugars are considered to be a limiting factor for acrylamide formation despite the presence of amino acid precursor free asparagine, during the processing of potato products in excess of heat. In order to restrict the formation of acrylamide to low levels, the content of reducing sugars should not exceed 100 mg/100 g FW (Kumar et al.). Moreover, small size tuber (<50-mm size) contains more acrylamide content (322 ppb) because of a high amount of reducing sugar as compared to the large size tubers (>50-mm size) which possess 148 ppb (Po et al., 2018 ).
Although it is low compared to the maize and you can beans, it put alot more necessary protein for every equipment growing city when comparing to cereals
While the basic reports throughout the acrylamide when you look at the dinner in 2002 (Swedish Federal Dinner Administration, 2002 ), the fresh scientific society mobilized and you can been significant work to reduce that it mutagen from the amongst the food community growing minimization actions. That method is to try to produce and use SNP-mainly based molecular markers for the number of potato kinds having lower cutting glucose otherwise sucrose and you can 100 % free asparagine account to the a huge-size potato breeding plan (Fischer et al., 2013 ; Li et al., 2013 ; Schreiber ainsi que al., 2014 ). Molecular indicators provide an invaluable possibility to speed selection for plant breeders to build the latest potato cultivars that have most readily useful control top quality (minimal cutting sugar and you may totally free asparagine, higher dry amount posts (DMC), large specific-gravity and starch blogs). Such characteristics was polygenic, thus GWAS based on highest-occurrence genome-large markers is efficient to have dissecting these types of complex qualities inside the potato.
The new healthy protein stuff of potato ranged anywhere between step one and dos.95 grams/a hundred g towards new lbs base. Biracial dating apps for iphone Additionally, potato proteins is recognized as high quality because of the latest exposure from methionine, lysine, tryptophan and you may threonine (Lutaladio & Castaldi, 2009 ).
Tuber and additionally can add up steroidal glycoalkaloids (?-chaconine and you may ?-solanine with their aglycone derivatives particularly solasodine and solanidine) that are necessary for bush effectiveness pathogens and you may pests however, toxic so you’re able to humans (Friedman ainsi que al
Potatoes also contain secondary metabolites such as carotenoids (especially xanthophylls) and anthocyanins, which are known as dietary antioxidants and may play major roles in preventing human diseases related to ageing, cancer, obesity and heart attack, which benefits health. The carotenoids (varied from yellow to orange colours) and anthocyanins (red and purple colours) are the two most valuable colouring pigments in potato. Carotenoid amounts and types in tubers exhibit a large variation and are positively correlated with tuber peel and the flesh colour (de Haan Et Al., 2009 ; Sulli et al., 2017 ). The carotenoid contents of white flesh potatoes are generally low (<100 ?g/100 g fresh weight), contrasting to higher amounts in the yellow-fleshed varieties (about 560 ?g/100 g FW; Nesterenko & Sink, 2003 ). A diploid germplasm of Solanum showed carotenoid concentrations of more than 2,000 ?g/100 g FW with intense yellow to near orange flesh colour. The primary tuber carotenoids in potato are lutein, zeaxanthin and violaxanthin, although some studies (Andre et al., 2007 ; Bonierbale et al., 2009 ) have also reported the presence of beta-carotene (precursor of provitamin A activity). The relative content of ?-carotene in cv. 'Agria' (yellow flesh) represented 2% of total carotenoids (Lachman et al., 2016 ). White, yellow and orange tuber flesh colours are mainly due to the presence of carotenoids (xanthophylls and beta-carotene; Van Eck, 2007 ). Moreover, antioxidant activity and various phenolic contents are also associated with tuber skin and flesh colour. It is a wrong perception that tuber flesh colour is associated with starch content. In fact, the change in flesh colour of tuber depends on the concentration of carotenoids, not on the starch content. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the SNP markers associated with tuber flesh/skin colour, carotenoids and starch for genetic gains in potato keeping in view the consumer preferability (Ah-hen et al., 2012 ). , 2005 ).